The boat found at St. Mawes wae brought to the Customs House quay. She ill about 15ft. The oars picked up were also unusually long and narrow, and many boatmen and sailors who visited the quay on Thursday expressed surprise that such a boat should have been used by men to go off to their vessel during rough weather. Those who saw the captain and men leave Falmouth state that they were quite sober.
It is conjectured that the boat turned over just after the captain said he did not want the lifeboat. Up to Thurs- da. The general belief was that all five men had been drowned. Up to the present none of the bodiee have l been recovered. I Owing either to the extraordinary nigh tnle I last week or to the heavy rains of late, a large portion of the high river bank near Caerleon Bridge slipped this morning into the river, carrying with it a number of trees. On the road between Caericon and Newport a large portion of the bank has also slipped on the river side, a portion of the 93th being carried awax.
Charles Chidlow, vicar of LUtwhauen, p ummoned Mr. BrelllJontS, schoolmaster, at.. Marley Sarneon, barrister, or the defendant, wiio had issued a cross- ;unanoBB. It appeared from th,?? The parson fell.. The school children fed. Some, on I J -eti--rninz, said. Inquiry elicited the fact j that she had regularly been in the habit of ] swallowing a wood-ioueo whenever ciio felt out 3i sorts.
These tvo cases are vouched for by the medical man who attended in each instance. Canton v. LiandaK Yaid c'riendly. Old iionktoniaus v. Penyian friendly. Barry Unitsd v. Canton Reserves Divisicn II. Teilo's v. Pensrth United Division IX. Betts Roath rootball ClUb. Saviour's v. Korton Cardifi and District R'Ji'by union1. Division IV. Jehn Eamii'. Ctive Thistles v. L LiiTndad Fields. Perr-man Cardiff hnd Dis- trict Bug-by Union. Patrick's v. Ettmlaas Division IV. Gardmz, D. SpIDt Pari. Roath Park. ED- Laad. BavM's a bvs. Sophia Gardc. Sophia Gardens. Jclin's v. Morgan Rcsth Part. Peter' v. EleaLor-street a bye.
Barracks FieltL-. Monica's l. Llandafl Fields—St. Mary B. At Ynysynstarad. County School Y. At Neath. Xcavh: Back, W. Howel Jones, J. Stephens, T. Dryies; J. Burchell a J. Arnold, F. David, D. Bosser, D. Davies, and N. At Liwvnypia. Penygraig: Back, W. Lewis: three- quuxtcr backs selected from Arthur Williams captain , W D. Trebarne, and F. Thomas, Dai Lewis, C. Evsag, F. Osborne, D. At Cacrpbillv. Girphmy: G. Evans, and M. Bevan; half-backs. Brothers Xortoa; forwards, C. Evans, G. Westhead, D. Thomas, G.
Gilm yre, E. Backer, G. At ;wmerl1. Cwrabraa: Back. Thomas, W. Hewincrs; forwards. Tampliu captain,. Jones, J. Jones, D. EoLoway, E. At Whucburch. Bridgend: Back, W. Edwards, D. Nekreaad D. McLccuan: baif-backs. Ward aad Wfllfe Hopkins: forward. Kiztgdom, G. Myers, T. Griffiths, P. Ydwardt, and T. Csaton: Back.
Harding: larcr-QUar- ter backs. Mills, J. Deacy; half-backs. Ward and W. Jackson; forwards, W. Jotul, J. Mills, H.
The Classical Berceuse Information Page on Classic Cat
Hawkins, and B. Pill Harriers: Back, J. Haley: three- quarter tMtcks. UeweUyn, M. Buckey, aad C. Cousins; half-becks, W. Moses and J. HiUman; for- wards. Twvers, J. Carpenter, A. WiUiaics, Fred. JODCfo, BLAl: At Aba-tiller. Abertillerr: Bact, A. Harvey; thre- auarter backs, R. U Erans captain..
Francis, E. Hodfres; haii-backe, J. Jarnee ana G. Evans; forwards, J. Wmmill, J. At Pecar,h Peaarth: Back, H. Thorns, J. Dyke, and L. Kooney: baU-backs. Dyte; forwards, L. Hamilton, W. Ma-tthews, T. Bartletv, E. Thorn a: V. UewfciliTi, II. C Williams, and W. Tredegar: Back J. Darjes: tbroe-qaar- ter backs. Carey, A. James, and Edgp: Jones; half-backs, W. E ais and G. Protheroe; for- wards, G. Graveaor, T. Blackmorc, W. Smith, C. Porth: Goal, Boh. Tones; backs, y. Elsoj iind E.
Parry; haa-backs, M. Grant, I and Y. Youni, W. Williams captain , and H. At Hereford. Abardare selecird from Saw Seward, W. Davies, W. Sam Parker Haydn Price, W. Bavell, and T. I At Hafod. Cownas; liac'ts. A few of these multi-stem nouns derive from Latin forms without stress shift, e. All of these multi-stem nouns refer to people; other nouns with stress shift in Latin e. Some of the same nouns with multiple stems in Old French or Old Occitan have come down in Italian in the nominative rather than the accusative e.
As described above, case marking on pronouns is much more extensive than for nouns. Determiners e. Unlike in English, a separate neuter personal pronoun "it" generally does not exist, but the third-person singular and plural both distinguish masculine from feminine. Also, as described above, case is marked on pronouns even though it is not usually on nouns, similar to English. As in English, there are forms for nominative case subject pronouns , oblique case object pronouns , and genitive case possessive pronouns ; in addition, third-person pronouns distinguish accusative and dative.
There is also an additional set of possessive determiners, distinct from the genitive case of the personal pronoun; this corresponds to the English difference between "my, your" and "mine, yours". The Romance languages do not retain the Latin third-person personal pronouns, but have innovated a separate set of third-person pronouns by borrowing the demonstrative ille "that over there " , and creating a separate reinforced demonstrative by attaching a variant of ecce "behold!
Similarly, in place of the genitive of the Latin pronouns, most Romance languages adopted the reflexive possessive, which then serves indifferently as both reflexive and non-reflexive possessive.
Note that the reflexive, and hence the third-person possessive, is unmarked for the gender of the person being referred to. Hence, although gendered possessive forms do exist—e. Portuguese seu masc. In spoken Brazilian Portuguese , these collocations are the usual way of expressing the third-person possessive, since the former possessive seu carro now has the meaning "your car".
The same demonstrative ille is the source of the definite article in most Romance languages see below , which explains the similarity in form between personal pronoun and definite article. When the two are different, it is usually because of differing degrees of phonological reduction. Generally, the personal pronoun is unreduced beyond normal sound change , while the article has undergone various degrees of reduction, beginning with loss of one of the two original syllables, e.
Object pronouns in Latin were normal words, but in the Romance languages they have become clitic forms, which must stand adjacent to a verb and merge phonologically with it. Originally, object pronouns could come either before or after the verb; sound change would often produce different forms in these two cases, with numerous additional complications and contracted forms when multiple clitic pronouns cooccurred. Catalan still largely maintains this system with a highly complex clitic pronoun system.
Most languages, however, have simplified this system by undoing some of the clitic mergers and requiring clitics to stand in a particular position relative to the verb usually after imperatives, before other finite forms, and either before or after non-finite forms depending on the language. When a pronoun cannot serve as a clitic, a separate disjunctive form is used. These result from dative object pronouns pronounced with stress which causes them to develop differently from the equivalent unstressed pronouns , or from subject pronouns.
Most Romance languages are null subject languages. The subject pronouns are used only for emphasis and take the stress, and as a result are not clitics. In French, however as in Friulian and in some Gallo-Italian languages of northern Italy , verbal agreement marking has degraded to the point that subject pronouns have become mandatory, and have turned into clitics.
These forms cannot be stressed, so for emphasis the disjunctive pronouns must be used in combination with the clitic subject forms. Friulian and the Gallo-Italian languages have actually gone further than this and merged the subject pronouns onto the verb as a new type of verb agreement marking, which must be present even when there is a subject noun phrase. Some non-standard varieties of French treat disjunctive pronouns as arguments and clitic pronouns as agreement markers. In medieval times, most Romance languages developed a distinction between familiar and polite second-person pronouns a so-called T-V distinction , similar to the former English distinction between familiar "thou" and polite "you".
This distinction was determined by the relationship between the speakers. French is still at this stage, with familiar singular tu vs. In cases like this, the pronoun requires plural agreement in all cases whenever a single affix marks both person and number as in verb agreement endings and object and possessive pronouns , but singular agreement elsewhere where appropriate e. Many languages, however, innovated further in developing an even more polite pronoun, generally composed of some noun phrases e.
Spanish innovated similarly, with usted es from earlier vuestra s merced es. In Portuguese and Spanish as in other languages with similar forms , the "extra-polite" forms in time came to be the normal polite forms, and the former polite or plural second-person vos was displaced to a familiar form, either becoming a familiar plural as in European Spanish or a familiar singular as in many varieties of Latin American Spanish. A similar path was followed by Italian and Romanian. As in European Spanish, the original second-person plural voi serves as familiar plural. In Italy, during fascist times leading up to World War II , voi was resurrected as a polite singular, and discarded again afterwards, although it remains in some southern dialects.
The form o senhor and feminine a senhora is sometimes used in speech, but only in situations where an English speaker would say "sir" or "ma'am". The result is that second-person verb forms have disappeared, and the whole pronoun system has been radically realigned. Latin had no articles as such.
Romance languages have both indefinite and definite articles, but none of the above words form the basis for either of these. Usually the definite article is derived from the Latin demonstrative ille "that" , but some languages e. Some languages, e. French and Italian, have a partitive article that approximately translates as "some".
This is used either with mass nouns or with plural nouns—both cases where the indefinite article cannot occur. A partitive article is used and in French, required whenever a bare noun refers to specific but unspecified or unknown quantity of the noun, but not when a bare noun refers to a class in general. For example, the partitive would be used in both of the following sentences:. The sentence "Men arrived today", however, presumably means "some specific men arrived today" rather than "men, as a general class, arrived today" which would mean that there were no men before today.
On the other hand, "I hate men" does mean "I hate men, as a general class" rather than "I hate some specific men". As in many other cases, French has developed the farthest from Latin in its use of articles. In French, nearly all nouns, singular and plural, must be accompanied by an article either indefinite, definite, or partitive or demonstrative pronoun.
Due to pervasive sound changes in French, most nouns are pronounced identically in the singular and plural, and there is often heavy homophony between nouns and identically pronounced words of other classes. The article helps identify the noun forms saint or sein , and distinguish singular from plural; likewise, the mandatory subject of verbs helps identify the verb ceint. In more conservative Romance languages, neither articles nor subject pronouns are necessary, since all of the above words are pronounced differently. Latin, at least originally, had a three-way distinction among demonstrative pronouns distinguished by distal value: hic 'this', iste 'that near you ', ille 'that over there ', similar to the distinction that used to exist in English as "this" vs.
In urban Latin of Rome, iste came to have a specifically derogatory meaning, but this innovation apparently did not reach the provinces and is not reflected in the modern Romance languages. A number of these languages still have such a three-way distinction, although hic has been lost and the other pronouns have shifted somewhat in meaning. For example, Spanish has este "this" vs. The Spanish pronouns derive, respectively, from Latin iste ipse accu - ille , where accu- is an emphatic prefix derived from eccum "behold it!
Reinforced demonstratives such as accu - ille arose as ille came to be used as an article as well as a demonstrative. Such forms were often created even when not strictly needed to distinguish otherwise ambiguous forms. Reinforced forms are likewise common in locative adverbs words such as English here and there , based on related Latin forms such as hic "this" vs. Here again French prefers bare ecce while Spanish and Italian prefer eccum French ici "here" vs. Subsequent changes often reduced the number of demonstrative distinctions.
Standard Italian, for example, has only a two-way distinction "this" vs. In Catalan, however, a former three-way distinction aquest, aqueix, aquell has been reduced differently, with first-person and second-person demonstratives combined. Hence aquest means either "this" or "that near you "; on the phone, aquest is used to refer both to speaker and addressee. Verbs have many conjugations , including in most languages:. The main tense and mood distinctions that were made in classical Latin are generally still present in the modern Romance languages, though many are now expressed through compound rather than simple verbs.
The passive voice, which was mostly synthetic in classical Latin, has been completely replaced with compound forms. For a more detailed illustration of how the verbs have changed with respect to classical Latin, see Romance verbs. In Portuguese , a morphological present perfect does exist but has a different meaning closer to "I have been doing". The following are common features of the Romance languages inherited from Vulgar Latin that are different from Classical Latin:. Romance languages have borrowed heavily, though mostly from other Romance languages.
However, some, such as Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and French, have borrowed heavily from other language groups. Vulgar Latin borrowed first from indigenous languages of the Roman empire, and during the Germanic folk movements , from Germanic languages , especially Gothic; for Eastern Romance languages, during Bulgarian Empires , from Slavic languages , especially Bulgarian. See History of French — The Franks. Many Greek loans also entered the lexicon, e. Many basic nouns and verbs, especially those that were short or had irregular morphology, were replaced by longer derived forms with regular morphology.
Nouns, and sometimes adjectives, were often replaced by diminutives , e. Spanish hallar , Portuguese achar , Romansh dial. Spanish hablar , Dalmatian favlur , Sardinian faeddare , based on Jesus' way of speaking in parables. Many prepositions were used as verbal particles to make new roots and verb stems, e. Italian estrarre , Aromanian astragu , astradziri "to extract" from Latin ex- "out of" and trahere "to pull" Italian trarre "draw, pull", Aromanian tragu , tradziri , or to augment already existing words, e.
Many prepositions and commonly became compounded, e. Some words derived from phrases, e. A number of common Latin words that have disappeared in many or most Romance languages have survived either in the periphery or in remote corners especially Sardinia and Romania , or as secondary terms, sometimes differing in meaning. In some cases, one language happens to preserve a word displaced elsewhere, e.
28 erthygl ar y dudalen hon
Sardinian in particular preserves many words entirely lost elsewhere, e. Sardinian preserves some words that were already archaic in Classical Latin, e. During the Middle Ages, scores of words were borrowed directly from Classical Latin so-called Latinisms , either in their original form learned loans or in a somewhat nativized form semi-learned loans. These resulted in many doublets —pairs of inherited and learned words—such as those in the table below:. In many cases, the learned word simply displaced the original popular word: e.
The learned loan always sounds and, in writing, looks more like the original than the inherited word does, because regular sound change has been bypassed; likewise, the learned word usually has a meaning closer to that of the original. Borrowing from Classical Latin has produced a large number of suffix doublets. Similar examples can be found in all the other Romance languages.
Significant sound changes affected the consonants of the Romance languages. There was a tendency to eliminate final consonants in Vulgar Latin, either by dropping them apocope or adding a vowel after them epenthesis. Many final consonants were rare, occurring only in certain prepositions e. Many of these prepositions and conjunctions were replaced by others, while the nouns were regularized into forms based on their oblique stems that avoided the final consonants e.
Final -m was dropped in Vulgar Latin. Even in Classical Latin , final -am , -em , -um inflectional suffixes of the accusative case were often elided in poetic meter , suggesting the m was weakly pronounced, probably marking the nasalisation of the vowel before it. Final -t was eventually dropped in many languages, although this often occurred several centuries after the Vulgar Latin period.
For example, the reflex of -t was dropped in Old French and Old Spanish only around Old French also kept the third-person plural ending -nt intact. In Italo-Romance and the Eastern Romance languages , eventually all final consonants were either dropped or protected by an epenthetic vowel, except in clitic forms e. Palatalization was one of the most important processes affecting consonants in Vulgar Latin.
This eventually resulted in a whole series of " palatal " and postalveolar consonants in most Romance languages, e. Note how the environments become progressively less "palatal", and the languages affected become progressively fewer. The outcomes of palatalization depended on the historical stage, the consonants involved, and the languages involved. In both cases, phonetic palatalization must have remained in primitive Old French at least through the time when unstressed intertonic vowels were lost?
This has the effect of keeping the modern spelling similar to the original Latin spelling, but complicates the relationship between sound and letter. Stop consonants shifted by lenition in Vulgar Latin in some areas. Several other consonants were "softened" in intervocalic position in Western Romance Spanish, Portuguese, French, Northern Italian , but normally not phonemically in the rest of Italy except some cases of "elegant" or Ecclesiastical words , nor apparently at all in Romanian.
The dividing line between the two sets of dialects is called the La Spezia—Rimini Line and is one of the most important isoglosses of the Romance dialects. The changes instances of diachronic lenition resulting in phonological restructuring are as follows:. Some scholars once speculated that these sound changes may be due in part to the influence of Continental Celtic languages , [ citation needed ] but scholarship of the past few decades challenges that hypothesis.
Consonant length is no longer phonemically distinctive in most Romance languages.
Appendix:Swadesh lists for Italian languages
They may even occur at the beginning of words in Romanesco , Neapolitan, Sicilian and other southern varieties, and are occasionally indicated in writing, e. A few languages have regained secondary geminate consonants. Sardinia, southern Italy. Italian scrivere , spada , spirito , Stefano , and stato. One profound change that affected Vulgar Latin was the reorganisation of its vowel system.
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There is evidence that in the imperial period all the short vowels except a differed by quality as well as by length from their long counterparts. During the Proto-Romance period, phonemic length distinctions were lost. Vowels came to be automatically pronounced long in stressed, open syllables i. Soon, however, many of these vowels coalesced:. The Proto-Romance allophonic vowel-length system was rephonemicized in the Gallo-Romance languages as a result of the loss of many final vowels. Some northern Italian languages e.
Friulan still maintain this secondary phonemic length, but most languages dropped it by either diphthongizing or shortening the new long vowels. This vowel length was eventually lost by around AD , but the former long vowels are still marked with a circumflex. This system in turn has been phonemicized in some non-standard dialects e. A number of authors remarked on this explicitly, e. Cicero 's taunt that the populist politician Publius Clodius Pulcher had changed his name from Claudius to ingratiate himself with the masses.
An early process that operated in all Romance languages to varying degrees was metaphony vowel mutation , conceptually similar to the umlaut process so characteristic of the Germanic languages. Metaphony is most extensive in the Italo-Romance languages, and applies to nearly all languages in Italy; however, it is absent from Tuscan, and hence from standard Italian. These diphthongizations had the effect of reducing or eliminating the distinctions between open-mid and close-mid vowels in many languages.
In Spanish and Romanian, all open-mid vowels were diphthongized, and the distinction disappeared entirely. Portuguese is the most conservative in this respect, keeping the seven-vowel system more or less unchanged but with changes in particular circumstances, e. In French and Italian, the distinction between open-mid and close-mid vowels occurred only in closed syllables. Standard Italian more or less maintains this. This is still the situation in modern Spanish, for example.
Originally, all vowels in both languages were nasalized before any nasal consonants, and nasal consonants not immediately followed by a vowel were eventually dropped. In French, nasal vowels before remaining nasal consonants were subsequently denasalized, but not before causing the vowels to lower somewhat, e. In Portugal, vowels before a nasal consonant have become denasalized, but in Brazil they remain heavily nasalized. There was more variability in the result of the unstressed vowels.
Originally in Proto-Romance, the same nine vowels developed in unstressed as stressed syllables, and in Sardinian, they coalesced into the same five vowels in the same way. In Italo-Western Romance, however, vowels in unstressed syllables were significantly different from stressed vowels, with yet a third outcome for final unstressed syllables. This system is still preserved, largely or completely, in all of the conservative Romance languages e. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan.
In final unstressed syllables, results were somewhat complex. Evidence of this comes from Rhaeto-Romance , in particular Sursilvan , which preserves reflexes of both final -us and -um , and where the latter, but not the former, triggers metaphony. The original five-vowel system in final unstressed syllables was preserved as-is in some of the more conservative central Italian languages, but in most languages there was further coalescence:. The so-called intertonic vowels are word-internal unstressed vowels, i.
Intertonic vowels were the most subject to loss or modification. But many languages ultimately dropped almost all intertonic vowels. The Romance languages for the most part have kept the writing system of Latin, adapting it to their evolution. One exception was Romanian before the nineteenth century, where, after the Roman retreat, literacy was reintroduced through the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet , a Slavic influence. Diminutives are used in the Greek language to indicate not only smallness but also deep affection.
In many Greek lullabies they address Sleep, who is kindly asked to take the baby in his arms and help it go to sleep. His mother was the Night and his sons were the Dreams. Greek-speaking populations have lived in that part of Italy since the 8th century B. These areas have a large production of roses, which somehow explains the references to roses and their assortments in the lullaby. The word santoulos is of Italian origin and means godfather.
Its place of origin is the island of Aegina situated near the city of Athens. Passed on to the island of Cyprus it was converted to the Cypriot dialect and also some lyrics were added. The original Greek lullaby had only the first paragraph. We also do not know how it was introduced and changed in Cyprus. Balkan and Byzantine influences are evident in the structure of the song.
The mother is not present. This lullaby has several more lines but they contain words in many dialects. Fai la Nanna, Mio Simone Go to sleep, my Simone Go to sleep, my Simone is an example of the Italian old folk lullabies which depicts a feeling of the simple way of living in the old days. This is a lullaby from Tuscany and shows an initial exuberant tone followed by the sweeter pace of the cradle song. Other women are in the square talking and walking pleasantly, but she is at home cooking the focaccia bread and looking after her baby. Then it takes a more calm and deep tone.
It shows standard Italian and is one of the most popular cradle songs, used all over Italy. When Italians aged seventy and over have been asked if they have heard this song in their infancy, their response has been positive. So, we believe that Stella Stellina can be considered to be quite an old lullaby. When the sky is getting dark and you are there alone is the lullaby which describes the grand mother who goes to give the last kiss to child since he close his eyes, then slowly she swich off the light.
This very sweet song is one part of the very rich folk songs of the friulians and the lyrics are in friulian, an old roman language from the region of Udine. To learn the lyrics and knowing the melody go here. Fate la nanna, coscine di pollo Go to bed-byes, little chicken legs Italian mothers know this lullaby, which is used regularly with no text variations.
The little chicken legs can easily be those of little babies and the skirt refers to the time when many mothers could dedicate their attention to activities such as producing pieces of crochet for their babies. Go to bed-byes, little chicken legs is very popular all over Italy. It can be heard in different versions. This anonymous lullaby is also very old and sung in all the regions of Romania. The mother wishes her baby to grow and be able to take care of the sheep and lambs and ducklings in the fields.
Little children in the countryside always play in the fields among little animals and flowers. They also take care of these animals when they grow up. It is short and only repeats specific words for inducing peace and sleep to the baby: nani is a typical mimetic word very often used in a lullaby; maica means my mum. In Romanian, it is common to address a baby by the words my mum to show affection. Lullabies in Andalusia nanas in Spanish are closely related to a tradition of Castilian origin with ancient musical and textual components, and are sometimes regarded as a major cultural symbol.
Bayu-bayushki-bayu, Ne lozhisya na krayu. Pridyot serenkiy volchok, On ukhvatit za bochok I utashchit vo lesok Pod rakitovy kustok. Baby, baby, rock-a-bye On the edge you mustn't lie Or the little grey wolf will come And will nip you on the tum, Tug you off into the wood Underneath the willow-root. The main theme of a lullaby is the love for the child. Various subjects and feelings are expressed in Armenian lullabies, when the mother is rocking the cradle and singing, forgetting her daily burden, remembering past loves, embracing touching memories.
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Doing so, she is also passing past lamentations to the next generation, thus creating a bridge between generations, as well as instilling a love for the homeland. An Armenian lullaby YouTube. Such lullabies mostly articulate the desire for the baby to go to sleep. In the second stanza, the mother describes the baby with her hands and arms decorated with henna. In the old days, it was very common for Turkish people to apply henna on the hands of a baby as a way of blessing the child. In the last stanza, the mother expresses her wishes and expectations from a relative.
She asks for clothing from an aunt. Although modern, it still has the characteristic traditional lullaby phrases such as hu hu and e-e-e. It may be sung with changes in the first or the following lines.